Saturday, March 14, 2020
Examination of SportsScotland and Inactivity in women in Scotland Introduction Examination of SportsScotland and Inactivity in women in Scotland IntroductionFundingLinks to Elite Sport and Mega EventsInclusionConclusionReferencesRelated Introduction Inactivity in girls and young women is an increasing public health issue in Scotland. 65% of 14 year old girls do not reach recommended levels of physical activity and 43% of adult women do little or no exercise (Sportscotland, 2011). It is therefore understandable that the government is striving to tackle this problem by implementing initiatives such as Fit for Girls (FFG) in secondary schools across Scotland. The Fit for Girls programme is a joint initiative between the Youth Sport Trust and sportscotland, aimed at increasing physical activity participation among girls aged 11 to 16 years. The programme was piloted in 2008 and is being delivered to 296 mainstream and 11 additional support needs (ASN) schools across Scotland, over a 3 year time schedule. The primary objective of the programme is to bring about sustainable change in schools that moulds a positive future for girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ participation in physical activity. Fit for Girls aims to achieve this by providing an interactiv e environment for participants, emphasising the importance of consulting girls, working with them to establish reasons for disengagement and developing strategies to enhance future participation. The principles of respect, empowerment and participation are inherent of the programme. Girls who are currently inactive or have low levels of participation are encouraged to express their thoughts, feelings and ideas in a real and honest way. It is hoped that the Fit for Girls programme, coupled with the engagement of PE staff and Active Schools Coordinators, has the ability to make a significant impact on girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ physical activity levels as well as their perception of physical activity and sport. Funding Sportscotland is a Quango, that is, an organisation that is funded by taxpayers, but not controlled directly by central government. Sportscotland are provided with a budget from the government and they choose how, and where to distribute the funds. A sum of Ã £530, 000 was invested into the Fit for girls programme in 2008.Ã This would finance the roll out of the program over a 3 year period. Each participating secondary school was entitled to apply for a Ã £700 start up grant. There was flexibility in how the grant was spent. However, funding could be used to employ staff or coaches to deliver sessions as this was not viewed as being sustainable in the long term however, the funding could be spent to train staff, volunteers, parents and senior pupils, to provide them with the essential skills and confidence required to deliver the activities. Other uses included modernising changing facilities, upgrading equipment, and providing development pathways for senior pupils. Whilst man y acknowledge the importance of sport and its potential to greatly impact on a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s health, culture and pride, it can be argued that for a country in severe economic crisis, the Ã £46,257,000 savings, which could be achieved from cutting sportscotland may be better invested elsewhere in the public sector. It is due to this controversial issue that many organisations and projects such as FFG are hanging in the balance. They are completely dependant on funding and as FFG has reached the end of its three year schedule, it is not yet known whether their funding will be extended. Links to Elite Sport and Mega Events The links between Fit for Girls and elite sport is limited. It is unlikely that a project of this nature and capacity will unearth a substantial amount of new talent, of the standard to perform at an elite level. The links between this project and events such as the 2012 and 2014 Olympic and commonwealth games appear to be relatively minimal.Ã These mega events are elite sport and competition at the highest possible level and see countries and athletes from all over the world participate whereas, FFG is sport at a basic, introductory level and is a national strategy within Scotland, exclusive to girls of a certain age. However, by focussing on the foundation principles and objectives of both events, links can be made. Ã¢â¬Å"The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well.Ã¢â¬ (Olympic creed). Whilst the Olympic Games and FFG appear to be at polar opposites on the sporting spectrum, they both share a similar philosophy which places great importance on participation and personal achievement. It is evident that hosting the 2012 Olympics and 2014 Commonwealth games provides the nation with a great opportunity to capitalize on the hype and publicity of the games and foster this as a catalyst for change and sporting development. This is recognized by reaching higher which acknowledges that Ã¢â¬Å"Major sporting events such as the Olympic, Paralympics and Commonwealth Games provide electrifying experiences for competitors and spectators. If such events are to provide an enduring legacy, they must be used as catalysts for chang e.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â (Reaching Higher, 2007). In FFGÃ¢â¬â¢s 1st year, participation levels in P.E and extra- curricular activities rose from 18- 27% This increased participation, expands the national pool of elite sporting talent for events such as the commonwealths, illustrating that FFG does link to elite sport and its major events. In the same way, these mega events greatly benefit schemes of this nature.Ã Reaching higher states that, Ã¢â¬Å"Volunteers and professional staff are core to the delivery of our vision. Without their expertise people will not get enthused and involved and our sportsmen and women will not reach their potential.Ã¢â¬ - (Reaching higher, 2007). Whilst it is unlikely that the programme will produce a wealth of new elite sporting talent, FFG does have the potential to produce girls who are passionate about sport and may pursue a career in the sport and leisure industry, in a voluntary, coaching or management and development capacity. This is perhaps the most prominent link to elite sport and mega events and the projectÃ has a framework in place to promote and develop this. The level 1, Sports Leader Award is offered to s4 core pupils, this allows them to gain leadership experience, work with Active Schools Coordinators and Sports Development, as well as working with talented girls who are at risk of becoming disaffected. Additionally, the Ã¢â¬ËHeartstartÃ¢â¬â¢ Training, British Heart Foundation program is offered, teaching pupils emergency aid such as CPR and how to recognise heart attack symptoms. It can therefore be drawn that whilst the links between this program with elite sport and mega events are indirect they are still significant. Inclusion The most prominent issue regarding inclusion with this program is that it excludes boys. Through FFG, the young women are receiving higher quality equipment and changing facilities, as well as having a greater deal of input and choice into the curriculum structure. It is evident that this may result in the boys feeling jealous and overlooked, which could have a detrimental effect on male participation levels and motivation. However, Reaching Higher illustrates that with regards to female participation in the 16+ age group: rates stand at 59% against 68% of young men additionally, 40% of girls have dropped out of all sports activity by the time they reach 18 (sportscotland participation survey. 2002-2004). This demonstrates that drop out and participation levels are a greater problem in girls than boys. Studies have suggested that the main reasons for girls drop out in P.E are lack of skill, and feeling embarrassed (Fit for Girls Workshop: Bucking the Trend, 2010). On average, girls e nter sport at 7.4 years of age in comparison to boys at 6.8 years old. 47% of girls are reported to be involved with some kind of organized sport by age 6, while 60% of boys of the same age areÃ participating. (WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Sports Foundation Research Report 2008). This illustrates that on average, boys have a head start on girls with regards to sports participation and skill development. Research into the sociological dimensions of girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ physical activity participation concluded that the Ã¢â¬Å"traditional subject matter of physical educationÃ¢â¬ ¦privileges boys while disadvantaging girlsÃ¢â¬ . What is sometimes referred to as the Ã¢â¬Å"hidden curriculumÃ¢â¬ in physical education, places great importance on skill level and ability, as well as emphasizing competition, rather than promoting sport and physical activity as part of a healthy lifestyle. (Garrett, R. 2004). The curriculum centreÃ¢â¬â¢s around team games and competitive activities and this learning cli mate, in turn, has often favoured male pupils due to their greater level of experience in a sports environment. Additionally, their confidence to perform athletic skills, which they are both competent and familiar with lead them to enjoy and excel in P.E classes, while girls often experience anxiety and marginalization. Literature also states that women are far more self-conscious than men when participating in sport and physical activity. (Brudzynski, L., William, E. 2010). The Fit for Girls program aims to combat this by adapting the curriculum to include more expressive and artistic activities, in conjunction with this, evidence suggests that the female only environment assists in reduce anxiety and body image concerns Ã¢â¬Å"Female PE staff makes me feel more comfortable taking part in activities, especially trampolining and dance.Ã¢â¬ (Bannockburn High School, S3 pupils.) Many would champion the program for seeking activities and teaching environments which increase female p articipation in P.E however, it can be argued that with regards to the modernized changing facilities, which include hair dryers and straighteners, the boys are being unfairly discriminated against and are disadvantaged. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, young men feel the pressure to look a certain way and conform as well as girls, this could be seen as a luxury which if anything, nurtures stereotypical views and creates an even greater sense of segregation and conflict between male and female pupils. Alternatively, Evidence suggests that whilst boys do care about their appearance and would like upgraded facilities, it has a stronger influence on the take-up of females than their male counterparts. Fit for GirlsÃ¢â¬â¢ runs in 296 of 376 mainstream high schools, which equates to 79% and only 11 out of 193 Ã¢â¬ËASNÃ¢â¬â¢ high schools, equivalent to 6%. Whilst disabled pupils are not completely excluded from this scheme, the figures clearly illustrate that the provision is severely limited. Ã¢â¬Å"People with a disability, who equate to one in five of our population, are also less likely to participate in sportÃ¢â¬ (Reaching Higher, 2007). Therefore, it can be argued that if anything, they are at a greater need for exposure to projects such as this. Conversely, it is evident that there are many children with additional need who do not attend an ASN school, instead they are included in the mainstream schooling system,(Scottish Education Report 2007), suggesting that whilst the program is only operating in 6% of ASN schools, it is likely to be reaching a larger percentage indirectly. A further issue regarding the inclusion of this program is that it is only delivered in secondary education. It can be postulated that FFG would achieve even greater results if it was to engage with the girls at a younger age i.e. primary school. By interacting with the girls at a younger age, there is more chance of positively influencing their perception of sport and instilling good habits and attitudes however, It has been identified that between the age of 14-18 is the period in their life when most girls drop out of sport, with 40% being completely disaffected by the time they reach 18. With projects such as this, which rely heavily of funding, there is always going to be issues of inclusion. This is a project which undeniably targets a very specific population, thereby excluding many others however, by analyzing the scheme and what they are striving to achieve, it is difficult to condemn or pick fault in their strategy. The nationsÃ¢â¬â¢ disengagement with sport and the problems that this creates cannot be tackled with one sweeping solution, whilst FFG may isolate certain groups; it is likely to have a greater success rate by focusing on its target demographic and their specific needs, rather than attempting to reach a larger population on consequently limited funding and resources. Whilst the reasons to target such a specific population are justifiable, the project could be made more sustainable and inclusive if it was integrated into the curriculum for excellence. This appears to be the next logical step forward and would enable the program to flourish and prog ress without the requirement of additional funding. Conclusion In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society a physically active lifestyle is recognised as an essential component of healthy living. In addition to the long term health benefits, physical activity during childhood supports holistic development, assisting to prevent overweight and obesity and the health concerns associated with these conditions, as well as enhancing psychological wellbeing. With adolescent girls being identified as at risk of becoming disaffected, The Fit for Girls project set out with clear objectives to increase the participation in sport of this population and improve their experience of sport. There is limited literature evaluating the success of the project to date however, from initial figures and case studies, the project appears to have been a success in achieving its primary objectives. With regards to elite sporting pathways and links to mega events, the connections are extremely limited, only by analysing the basic foundation principles can any parallels be drawn and even th en, they are still weak. Undoubtedly there are issues of inclusion with this scheme, by targeting such a specific demographic; it inevitably isolates a wider population. With everything considered, it can be drawn that whilst its links to elite sport are limited and it may be subject to scrutiny over issues of inclusion, the project was successful in achieving its objectives and is a small, but significant stepping stone towards increasing female sports participation. Despite acknowledging the success and importance of this project it could be concluded that the best way forward does not require an extension to the funding, instead, the principle and structure of the project should be addressed and integrated into the curriculum for excellence. References Bailey, R., (2005). Evaluating the relationship between physical education, sport and social inclusion. Education Review, 57, (1), 71-90. Brudzynski, L., William, E. (2010) Garrett, R., (2004). Negotiating a physical identity: girls, bodies and physical education. Sport, Education and Society, 9 (2), 223-237. Ferguson, M., (2009). Call for Scottish PE overhaul after damning report. Future Fitness. Sport and Fitness for todayÃ¢â¬â¢s youth, July. p.5. Fit for Girls Workshop: Bucking the Trend, (2010) Hardman, K. (2007). Physical Education: Ã¢â¬Å"The future ainÃ¢â¬â¢t what it used to be!Ã¢â¬ University of Worcester, UK. Hardman, K., (2008). The Situation of Physical Education in Schools: a European Perspective. Human Movement, 9 (1), 1-14. Scottish Executive (2003). LetÃ¢â¬â¢s make Scotland more active Ã¢â¬â A Strategy for Physical Activity. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh. Scottish Education Report. (2007) Wallace, J ., Homes, A. (2007). Fit for the Future? Young peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s participation in physical activity in Scottish secondary schools. Scottish Consumer Council, Glasgow. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Sports Foundation Research Report. (2008) Reaching Higher. (2007) www.scotland.gov.uk www.sportscotland.co.uk. www.youthsporttrust.org
Thursday, February 27, 2020
The current leadership and memebership composition of the Chinese Communist Party reflects the evolution of the Chinese state and society since 1949. comment - Essay Example The CCP and its cadres Ã¢â¬Å"are changing in ways that make creative solutions to political governance problems feasible than a repeated violent reaction to social change, as in 1989Ã¢â¬ (Smith, 2003). While progress and reform is on the party agenda, its leadership still retains useful traditions and customs. A case in point is the utilization of nomenklatura system for selecting party leaders. Its critics will point to its shortcomings, including its inability to curb corruption within the party ranks. But the nomenklatura system was not devised to deter corruption. Also, the cadre responsibility system was meant to act as an analytical tool for zeroing in on the primary goals of the party and assessing the success of various policy initiatives; and it has proved equal to this stated objective. The history of China over the last sixty years has not been without moments of indiscretion and impasse. When in September of 1949, the communist revolution was complete and the CCP ascended to power, the people of China were relieved and also hopeful; Relieved of closing a conflict-ridden chapter of their recent history and hopeful of a brighter future. It can safely be said that their hopes were fulfilled to a large extent. The CCP has to be credited for bringing about a degree of economic and political stability in the first decade of their reign. The subsequent years will prove to be more challenging for the CCP leadership, which had to deal with famine caused by its Great Leap Forward program. From these early days, when the party and its members were still learning the ropes of governance it has now become a sophisticated and well coordinated political machine. The party building efforts in modern urban settlements (also called Ã¢â¬ËshequÃ¢â¬â¢) is an innovative move. Furt her, Ã¢â¬Å"Such local experiments in limited political reform are creating a mixed regime based on one-party rule, Mandarin traditions, and intra-party
Monday, February 10, 2020
Issue paper - Essay Example The culture of any country is a conglomerate of many societies, which are unique and special to them. However, the values are not measured on individual differences but the differences on the society. Such differences are known as group level constructs (Hofstede 16). While applying this knowledge, anyone has to consider several factors, which always accompany culture. Examples of these factors include the national wealth, national history and heritage, the different individuals who live in the country as well as any coincidental events. While applying this method, a great level of care has to be taken into consideration in order to predict the future with more accuracy. According to Geer, culture is the collection of programmes of the mind, which differentiates followers of one group or class of individuals from another (Hofstede 16). A research was conducted in sixty-two countries, which sought to identify the most common cultures among the people in the world. The results conclude d by identifying nine similar cultures in most part of the world (Evan and Gordon Web). This therefore formed a benchmark for measuring independent variables. The variables were later noted to contribute to the differences between countries, which affect culture, and performance of my team (Ward Web). Being in South Korea, my country embraces deep religious practices among its citizens. Majority of the population in the country comprises of Buddhists, Christians, Confucians, Shamanist, and many other traditional religious groupings. Religion in this country will form a basis for the formation of work teams. Moreover, religion will form a moral code for human relations. I have also realized that Koreans are very respectful of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s choice while the culture of impudence is highly discouraged. People in the groups will tend to avoid bad behaviors since it will discourage other group members from participating. I have also learnt that South Koreans have strict rules on decency and etiquette, whereby they tend to follow seniority in age and the hierarchical ranks (Asia Pulse Web). Individual collectivism is another cultural difference among nations, which impacts on the performance of teams. Individual collectivism is described as the value in which individuals and different groups give to themselves. Independent people are more concerned with achieving self-actualization and career success rather than dependent people who like to see themselves in successful teams. Cohesion among group members is of great concern than the individualism in the group. Therefore, I would consider that an individual has to prioritize group work rather than individual goals (Asia News Monitor Web). Gender concern is another issue that tends to affect the performance of group members. Different nations have different views and policies regarding the relationship of men and women in different work areas. In South Korea, masculinity defines responsibilities based on gende r in the society. In high masculinity communities, there are higher salaried jobs and ranks that are meant for women whereas in low masculinity organizations, women get recognition, which is more equitable in terms of positions and power. In South Korea, people prefer to have man in power as compared to women. Moreover, people prefer to have men in professional career growth than women. This role has made South Korea a high masculinity
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Jury and Group Think Essay A jury is a sworn group of citizens gathered to provide a reasonable and unbiased verdict and a finding of fact on a legal inquiry presented to them officially or set a penalty based on the evidences and the law. This practice is considered to have originated from England where nobles and freeman were accorded the right to be tried by a committee of the same class as they are rather than be subjected to the judgment of the king. The right to jury trial in both state and federal proceedings is guaranteed by the Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The Seventh Amendment also accords explicitly the right to jury trial for all parties involved in civil cases at the district level. In the United States, only juries can provide a verdict and set a penalty for the accused if found guilty. This is especially true for cases when the penalty decided is capital punishment (Jury, 2006). This power vested in a jury makes it important to analyze how verdicts are formed in the environment of jury deliberations. One way to do this is through jury simulation research. Jury simulation research involves the methods of research used to understand how a jury would react to statements made by parties involved in court cases and how they would arrive at the verdict. Some of the methods used are prospective juror demographic research, mock trials, jury selection, shadow jury and post-trial jury interviews. The usual market research techniques are also used such as phone surveys, focus groups and feedback sessions. The results of these researches are used by parties involved in court proceedings for settlement negotiations and setting up a defense or prosecution strategy that would be compelling to the jury (Jury research, 2007). The main strength of jury research is that it presents interested parties possible combinations of strategies that could possibly influence the jury verdict in their favor. Visual exhibits, witnesses, metaphors, timeline of events and other techniques in the presentation of evidence are tested to understand the viability of each and combinations of these for the benefit of the interested party. Psychological and sociological analysis is used to give parties an edge on jury trials. Research of this type has been successfully utilized in some landmark cases such as the IBM antitrust trial of 1969 and the O. J. Simpson murder case (Jury research, 2007). The main limitation is that it is impossible to predict exactly what needs to be done for a jury to make a decision in favor of the party. In the methods involved in jury research, questions are often general demographic ones that will not accurately predict the outcome of the jury deliberations. Surrogate jurors and not the actual jury members are used to represent the jury pool in the research. Jury research is simply no guarantee for victory in a case (Jury research, 2007). Mock juries are used in jury research to try to analyze in a controlled experiment how a verdict is reached in an actual jury. However, they cannot accurately mimic the behavior of actual juries. The behavior of the jury is based on the personal perspective of the individual jurors and external factors that may affect the behavior and decision making capabilities of the individuals and the whole jury in general. For instance, the pressure provided by the high stakes of a case, the stress from time constraints and routine disruption and other psychological stresses may not be exactly replicated in mock juries. Ã¢â¬Å"Group thinkingÃ¢â¬ is the term used to describe tendencies of groups to base their decision not on their personal judgment but on the collective and single unanimous decision that may not always be the best given the biases and desires of the members of the group to come up with the decision at the soonest possible time. It is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a way of deliberating that group members use when their desire for unanimity overrides their motivation to assess all available plans of actionÃ¢â¬ (Janis, 1972). This very commonly affects the verdict of a jury. This is because, following the framework prepared by Janis (1983) on Group Thinking, the antecedents such as structural faults (insulation, lack of impartial leadership, lack of norms and procedures) and provocative context (high stress from external threats) are commonly characteristics of a presiding jury. This tendency to seek unanimity over proper assessment leads to bad decision-making. Some of the symptoms that often characterize defective decision making stemming from group thinking include the incomplete analysis and consideration of alternatives and objectives, failure to examine risks from choice and reappraise rejected ones, poor information search and selective information bias and failure to contingency plan. Because of the high stakes involved in jury cases, it is important to ensure sound decision-making by steering away from the tendency to group think. The most effective way to prevent group thinking is promoting vigilance against it. The first step is to recognize when symptoms of group thinking are starting to appear. Group members must strive to retain status equality to prevent a single member from influencing the entire group. New information must always be sought to challenge a reigning agreement to test its strength. Norms must be set to retain vigilance such as having a devilÃ¢â¬â¢s advocate, instituting dialectical inquiry and assigning a specific member to remind against bias and group thinking (Meade, 2003). The tendencies of group thinking may be uncovered through jury research. There is a danger that certain parties that rely on jury research may prey upon these tendencies. Therefore, it is important that jury retain its impartiality and sound decision making capability to effectively perform its duty to uphold justice in any court proceeding. Bibliography Janis, I. (1972). Victims of groupthink, Boston: Houghton Ã¢â¬â Mifflin Janis, I. (1982). Groupthink (2nd edn. ), Boston: Houghton Ã¢â¬â Mifflin Janis, I. (1983). Groupthink model. Retrieved 19 May 2007 from http://choo. fis. utoronto. ca/FIS/Courses/LIS2149/Groupthink. html.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Sinners in the Hands of an Angry GodÃ¢â¬ -Essay In the 1700Ã¢â¬â¢s the Puritans left England for the fear of being persecuted. They moved to America for religious freedom. The Puritans lived from GodÃ¢â¬â¢s laws. They did not depend as much on material things, and they had a simpler and conservative life. More than a hundred years later, the PuritanÃ¢â¬â¢s belief toward their church started to fade away. Some Puritans were not able to recognize their religion any longer, they felt that their congregations had grown too self-satisfied. They left their congregations, and their devotion to God gradually faded away. To rekindle the fervor that the early Puritans had, Jonathan Edwards and other Puritan ministers led a religious revival through New England. Edwards preached intense sermons that awakened his congregation to an awareness of their sins. With EdwardsÃ¢â¬â¢ sermon, Ã¢â¬Å"Sinners in the Hands of an Angry GodÃ¢â¬ he persuades the Puritans to convert back to Puritanism, by utilizing rhetorical strategies s uch as, imagery, loaded diction, and a threatening and fearful tone. Edwards applied masses of descriptive imagery in his sermon to persuade the Puritans back to their congregation. For example, he gave fear to the Puritans through this quote, Ã¢â¬Å"We find it easy to tread on and crush a worm that we see crawling on the earth, so it is easy for us to cut a singe a slender thread that any thing hangs by, thus easy is it for God when he pleases to cast his enemies down to hellÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (pg. 153) In this quotation, he utilized vivid imagery because he wanted the Puritans to visibly imagine what he was saying through his sermon, on how angry God is with them, which made them convert back to Puritanism. Through the use of vivid imagery such as Ã¢â¬Å"crush a w... ...GodÃ¢â¬ , by Jonathan Edwards successfully persuaded the Puritans to be converted back to Puritanism. Through EdwardsÃ¢â¬â¢ sermon the Puritans were compelled to renew their faith back to God. Edwards gave the Puritans a sense of realization, which caused them to go back to their congregation. Edwards horrified the Puritans, with his use of vivid and descriptive imagery, which effectively persuaded them to return to the congregation. Through his utilization of numerous loaded and highly emotional diction, he petrified and convinced the Puritans to go back to the church of God. He also gloriously enhances his sermon with his utilization of threatening and fearful tone tormented the Puritans and convinces them to be pious once again. Jonathan EdwardsÃ¢â¬â¢s utilization of numerous rhetorical strategies effectively persuaded the Puritans to convert back to their congregations.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Accounting to me is challenge as a whole; it is a good subject to learn because accounting knowledge is always in demand. So far, I am on a good path learning the basics of accounting. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned how accounting affects business and how it allows organizations to identify cash inflows and outflows. This accounting course provided me a great opportunity to understand the various important aspects of accounting that I believe will be helpful in my future practical life. I need to begin my own particular business in future for that itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to have great knowledge of Financial and Managerial Accounting. This course has helped me to comprehend numerous essential ideas of accounting. This knowledge is going to help me to comprehend and investigate financial statements and will empower me to take great business choices in view of accounting data. The following is the rundown of what I have realized and can detract from this course. Chapter 01 After reading the first chapter, I learned that who are the stakeholders or users of the accounting information. I get found out about different organizations like AICPA, FASB and so on impacting the foundation of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) for businesses or governmental organizations. I comprehend the significance of morals and accounting gauges like IFRS. While learning different sort of business I become more acquainted with vital idea of accounting i.e. the business entity idea. Most critical thing I adapted in this chapter is accounting ideas and principles. I get to Introduced to assets, liabilities, stock holders equity and imperative financial statements. Chapter 02 Chapter 02 gave insights about strides in recording posting the effects of the business transactions. They are different assets and liabilities records utilized for recoding the exchange as a part of journal, t-records and ledger. Here I learned different strides of accounting cycle beginning from breaking down the transactions by looking at source documents. I found out about get ready trial balance from ledger and amending trial balance errors. Double-entry procedure is utilized which oblige that every exchange be recorded by an entry that has equivalent debits and credits. ResourceÃ records will regularly have charge balances and obligation records will typically have credit balances. I comprehend that records are of two sorts genuine (Balance Sheet accounts) & ostensible (income statement accounts). Chapter 03 After completing the Chapter 03, I am able to understand the adjusting processes of the financial statements for given period in light of trial balance or ledger entries. Here I adapted imperative idea of accrual basis of accounting. In accrual basis of accounting revenues are perceived when they are earned and expenses are perceived when they are really caused to deliver income. Where as in cash basis of revenues and expenses are perceived when cash is gotten and paid separately. Records are balanced so that income statement reports fitting income or cost and to make the balance sheet report the best possible resource or risk. Matching rule obliges that matching of expenses and revenues to introduce a precise photo of the profitability of a business. Adjusting entries are of two sorts deferred and gathered things. In the wake of passing adjusting entries balanced trial balance is readied. Chapter 4 Chapter 04 explained about use of work sheet facilitate the completion of the accounting cycle. The work sheet is a columnar sheet of paper or a computer spreadsheet on which accountants summarize information needed to make the adjusting and closing entries and to prepare the financial statements. Important Steps in competing accounting cycles are preparing adjusted trial balance after posting adjustment entries, Extend adjusted balances of from the Adjusted Trial Balance columns to the Income statement, Statement of retained earnings and Balance sheet. Here I learn important ratios i.e. current ratio and debt ratio. Current ratio specifies companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to pay its short-term obligations. Chapter 05 In chapter 05, I learned different imperative parts of merchandise transactions and there recording. I found out about contra accounts Sales Returns and Allowances account, Sales Discounts account, purchase returns and Allowances account and Purchase Discounts account. Two sorts ofÃ inventory processed took after i.e. perpetual inventory system and periodic inventory technique both having their own particular benefits and negative marks and ought to be utilized according to the need of specific business. Presently computerization as encouraged numerous firms to utilize perpetual inventory method for instance it has get to be economical for some retail locations to utilize perpetual inventory methodology notwithstanding for products of low unit value, for example, goods. Chapter 06 Chapter 06 discusses the diverse methods of inventory accounting i.e. FIFO method, LIFO method and Average cost method. All have diverse merits and negative marks under distinctive situations. For e.g. the merits of FIFO methods are-(1) Easy application, (2) the expected flow of costs relates with the ordinary physical flow of goods and (3) the balance sheet sum for inventory is liable to surmise the current market and so on. Burdens of FIFO can be Ã¢â¬â amid continually rising prices FIFO can offer ascent to paper profits. Amid times of rising prices, FIFO makes higher net income since the costs charged to cost of goods sold are lower. However LIFO expect that the costs of the latest purchases are the first costs charged to cost of goods sold. Net income is generally lower under LIFO since the costs charged to cost of goods sold are higher because of inflation. Chapter 07 Chapter 07 underlines the significance of having effective internal controls in every business. Inability to implement adequate internal controls can bring about frauds or robberies. Organizations ensure their benefits by different internal control procedures like Ã¢â¬â segregating employee duties, assigning specific duties to each employee, rotating employee job assignments, and using mechanical devices etc. Five components of internal control are Control environment, Risk assessment, Control activities, Information and communication and Monitoring. Sarbanes-Oxley Act was passed. The Act was passed as one aftereffect of the huge misfortunes to the employees and investors from accounting fraud circumstances including organizations, for example, Enron and WorldCom. I figure out how to build up internal control through control of cash receipts and cash distributions, fitting utilization of the bank checking account, readiness of the bank reconciliation, and protection of petty cash funds. Conclusion Accounting is an important factor in any business; large or small. If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t know your numbers, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t know the financial health of your business. In later chapters I found out about different sort fixed assets like Property, Plant & equipment and depreciation methods like Straight-line method, units-of-production method and double-Accelerated declining-balance (DDB) method and so forth. Depreciation is the measure of plant resource cost distributed to every accounting period profiting from the plant resourceÃ¢â¬â¢s utilization. Depreciation is a procedure of portion, not valuation. Land is considered to have an unlimited life and is in this way not depreciable. On the other hand, land improvements brief landscaping, parking lots and so on are connections to the land they have limited lives and thusly are depreciable. For Natural resources rather than depreciation we utilize consumption. Consumption is the fatigue that outcomes from the physical evacuation of a piece of a natural asset. While for intangible assets Amortization is utilized. Amortization is the systematic write-off of the cost of an intangible resource for cost. Goodwill is an intangible value connected to a business, confirm by the capacity to gain preferable return on investment over that earned by competitors in the same industry. I struggle with the accrual accounting only because I have never used this method on either a personal or business related level. In fact, this accounting course made me capable of establishing my own business.
Monday, January 6, 2020
THROW IT ALREADY! Jacob yelled Sweating and huffing and puffing, he demanded the aid of water orbs, one after the other , freezing them then hurling them at the foe in front of him. A Crabcest, a hostile monster that wreaks havoc on places that have caused high amounts of water pollution The rain danced off the brim of Jacobs hat I can t keep this up Hayly asked Through the telepathic link Tara had connected through the Guardians The crabcest punched one of the water orbs back at Jacob HayLy! Jacob yelled ducking as the water orb flew over his head Hayly lifted her hands from her sides and closed her eyes Air she said, surrendering herself to her element . A breeze lifted her by her wings into the air and spun herÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦He smacked it with his left claw, blocking all the potion from getting on his weak spot on his chest You re all a bunch of foolish maggots, that small amount of Lynx venom would never stop me! he taunted Tara and Jacob both lended a hand to Hay and Ar Mer, helping them off the ground There you go Tinker Bell Jacob said waving his hand as water washed the spit off of Hay s face It will if we supercharge it Tara said as she grinned sinisterly at the monster Ar Mer smiled With the tip of his index finger, he zapped the small amount of potion that rested still on the monster s chest. It sizzled then began to smoke. No No! NO! YOU HAVEN T SEEN THE LAST OF ME! I WILL DESTROY YO... The Monster yelled out Tara raised both her arms creating a circle. A circle of fire formed around the monster, the flames grew until the monster was engulfed in a fire force field. KABOOM! The five looked away as the monster exploded Great job guys Ar Mer said with a smirk United we stand, divided we fall Tara added Now what do we do about the water, ugh it s a mess Katherine said Me and you snow white? Jacob said cracking his knuckles Where do we start? Katherine said with her hands resting on her hips walking around the perimeter of the brown lake We ll have to do that tomorrow, it s 3 something in the morning on earth guys remember Tara remindedShow MoreRelatedDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 PagesSuzanne Duda Lead Media Project Manager: Denise Vaughn Full-Service Project Management: Sharon Anderson/BookMasters, Inc. Composition: Integra Software Services Printer/Binder: Edwards Brothers Cover Printer: Coral Graphics Text Font: 10/12 Weidemann-Book Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page within text. Copyright Ã © 2011, 2007, 2005, 2002, 1998 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, OneRead MoreManagement Course: MbaÃ¢Ëâ10 General Management215330 Words Ã |Ã 862 PagesContemporary Management, Fourth Edition JonesÃ¢ËâGeorge Driving Shareholder Value MorinÃ¢ËâJarrell Leadership, Fifth Edition HughesÃ¢ËâGinnettÃ¢ËâCurphy The Art of M A: Merger/Acquisitions/Buyout Guide, Third Edition ReedÃ¢ËâLajoux and others . . . This book was printed on recycled paper. Management http://www.mhhe.com/primis/online/ Copyright Ã ©2005 by The McGrawÃ¢ËâHill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States CopyrightRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesOne Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290. Many of the designations by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Robbins, Stephen P. Organizational behavior / Stephen P. Robbins, Timothy A. Judge